livelihood analysis methods

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22 January 2021

The assessment found that CARE had primarily focussed on addressing the immediate causes of livelihood failure through food aid, and that it was important to start addressing the intermediate causes, more connected to public service provision, through efforts to improve education, skills training, strengthening production systems, building community assets and upgrading the skills of local institutions. Since coping strategies are largely aimed at protecting livelihoods assets, they are not necessarily linked to maintaining or finding new food and income sources. Not everyone can work. At local level, the marginalisation and neglect of Darfur has contributed to: Legislation on land tenure could pose difficulties for those wanting to return to their land of origin after a period of displacement10. Creates community infrastructure. Fig. Lack of access to food. AREN It can also be used as a census-type instrument for either population level analysis or … Wu, Wenjie (2018) An Eye-tracking Study of User Behavior on Reading Scrolling Text . London. Benefits of an intervention or program can be considered direct, indirect, or intangible. Qualitative methods were used to gather an in-depth understanding of livelihoods and market structure. Chronic food insecurity. ENN is a charity in the UK no. ACF-E The Household Economy Approach. Seeds and tools fairs, increasing the size of food ration to allow for trading, and providing credit to small traders were also recommended as the situation stabilises. Akey feature of livelihoods analysis is that it includes an analysis of household assets, strategies, priorities and goals at micro-level, and the policies, institutions and processes that affect livelihoods at national and international level (macro-level). The HLSA process aims to enhance understanding about local livelihood systems (economic, socio-cultural, and political systems and the constraints, vulnerabilities, marginalization, and risks of poor families living within this context) and important differences among types of 2. The livelihoods framework provides a tool for analysing people's livelihoods and the impact of specific threats or shocks on livelihood vulnerability. Awareness of ways to pay online anonymously is essential for keeping your identity off the radar. in Dafur. Produced by the Participation Research Cluster, Institute of Development Studies. In my school days, I thought that my grand father was an easily available psychologist for the villagers and astrology was sheer non-sense that gives livelihood to Brahmins (usually poor). Food available and markets functioning. Your datasets will also be searchable on Mendeley Data Search, which includes nearly 11 million indexed datasets. Secondary data refers to data that is collected by someone other than the primary user. In emergency prone countries with long term livelihoods programmes or in protracted livelihoods crises, an analysis of the wider policy and institutional context is more common (see examples on assessments in Southern Africa and Somalia in box 4). The identification of appropriate interventions should be based on an analysis of the risks to livelihoods, who is most affected and how. The increasing use of the term 'livelihoods' in emergency assessments has led to confusion as to what a livelihoods assessment actually is. Lack of food availability. . Cash - or food-for-work as an option for bridging food or nonfood deficits taking account of household labour availability and seasonal calendars. The previous sections of this supplement have highlighted various challenges in livelihood support programming in emergencies. Functioning markets and banks. In such circumstances, it is possible to build up a livelihoods analysis that includes all elements of the livelihoods framework and develop recommendations for policy and advocacy work, as well as the provision of assistance. Failing institutions, including the native administration, judicial systems and policing. State of Severe Malnutrition To summ arize, th e UNDP SL approach, it is mainly used as a framework to program a nd integrate set s of In addition, a history of drought and famine has led to pressure on, and competition for, local resources. Action Against Hunger Ending Sexual Assault and RapeRape, sexual assault and violence against women are severe human rights violations, yet they remain widespread around the globe. They have provided a livelihood to millions of Africans and help some make more money than they could dream of from traditional trades. Recommendations ranged from measures to improve security and governance and increased communication between migrants and their families, to issues around access to cooking fuel and the risk of violence towards women collecting firewood. For patients sensitive to certain methods of medicinal consumption, this could prove to be a great benefit. In many emergency assessments, it will not be possible to assess all elements of the livelihoods framework and carry out an in-depth analysis of the impact of a shock on people's food and income sources. An HPN network paper. Cash may not be spent on intended programme objectives. Lili Mohiddin, Manohar Sharma & Anette Haller High management costs. Skilled workforce. From a methodological point of view, livelihood analysis is based on a mixed-methods approach, including both quantitative elements (data collection using a standardized questionnaire) and qualitative elements (either focus groups or in-depth individual and A number of agencies are adapting their assessment methodologies to better identify interventions other than food aid. According to the World Health Organization, more … An SC-UK assessment in Pakistan, in November 2005, used a combination of the sustainable livelihoods framework and the household economy approach to understand livelihood patterns before the earthquake, the impact of the earthquake on livelihood patterns, and to determine what was required to restore livelihoods. • Units of analysis: households • Purposive non-random sampling Brief overview of the livelihoods of people living in informal settlements in Freetown • Petty trading/small businesses • Fishing What we know already: Building resilience is widely referred to in Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) and Climate Change Adaptation... By Aranka Anema However, SC UK - and increasingly some of the national Vulnerability Assessment Committees (VAC) in Southern Africa - have also used HEA to plan or advocate for a wider range of livelihoods interventions. Emergency Food Security Assessment "The disaster affected population actively participates in the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the assistance programme" "Where people are at risk of food insecurity, programme decisions are based on a demonstrated understanding of how they normally access food, the impact of a disaster on current and future food insecurity, and hence the appropriate response." Also, various agency food security assessment guidelines, for example, SC-UK's Manual for Household Economy Assessments. There are important overlaps between household economy and livelihoods approaches to food security assessments, but also significant differences (see box 3). But the methods leak chemicals into rocks, soil and rivers. Emergency assessments may take a livelihoods approach, but often focus on the impact of a disaster on households' food security or household economy. ENN Strategy These methods were specific to one particular aspect of analysis and failed to integrate different complex aspects of livelihood together. Burnt grain from granaries torched by the Janjaweed Morney Camp, Darfur. Response options range from different types of food aid programmes (general distribution, FFW, feeding programmes) to cash transfer programmes, market support programmes, to nutrition education and food fortification. AAH Update your details Three methods of Eucheuma culture practised in the Philippines (from Alih, 1989). The focus is on the needs and priorities as identified by the affected populations themselves. These can be livelihood groups, livelihood zones, household economy zones. This presentation reviews how to analyse and report on the coping strategies. Sonya le Jeune is the SC(UK) Food Security Programme... By Shekar Anand, Oxfam The Sphere food security minimum standard for assessment and analysis, contains the fundamental elements of an emergency food security assessment: This section focuses on supporting agricultural production, in particular farming and livestock production, as livelihood strategies. Livestock disease. (Special Supplement 3), Support for primary production (Special Supplement 3), Long term strategies to target vulnerability in Somalia, Call for livelihood, food security and/or nutrition consultants for UNHCR, Income and employment support (Special Supplement 3), Comparing cash and food transfers: findings from a pilot project in Sri Lanka, Strengthening analysis of the nutrition situation through linking food security and nutrition information: Pitfalls and potentials, Emergency Food Security and Livelihoods Project in Amhara and Oromia regions, Supplement 3: From food crisis to fair trade, Table 3 Criteria for decision-making on interventions to address food crises. Deaths result from lack of pasture and/or water. In statistics, maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) is a method of estimating the parameters of a probability distribution by maximizing a likelihood function, so that under the assumed statistical model the observed data is most probable. A livelihood is sustainable when it can cope with and recover from shocks and stresses and maintain and enhance its capabilities and assets both now and in … It enables you to deposit any research data (including raw and processed data, video, code, software, algorithms, protocols, and methods) associated with your research manuscript. The livelihoods framework in its entirety has rarely been used as the basis for emergency assessments. Hussein and Nelson (1998) propose livelihood strategies in three ways: agricultural intensification, diversification, and migration. Lost physical assets include loss of farms, homes, and other household possessions. Past experience includes working with OXFAM, CARE, CIDA, and Government in Aceh, India, Zimbabawe... Susanne Jaspars (2006). Stimulates recovery Easy to target. Often done badly as part of FFW or CFW if focus is on providing food or cash. development approach. Mendeley Data Repository is free-to-use and open access. Can have negative impact on markets if done when criteria are not met. Sonya Le Jeune is currently a programme manager with SC UK in Liberia, working on a food security and livelihoods programme. Annual reports & accounts food or non food items in the local market. Choice for beneficiaries. March 2006. The study observed that the Participatory Livelihood Analysis approach was an effective method in the assessment of agricultural-extension-needs of disadvantaged communities in relatively remote locations. (The Sphere project (2004). Central to the framework is the analysis of … Where more than one intervention is appropriate, how to rank their appropriateness. In fact, it is only recently that household economy and food security assessments have started making explicit use of the livelihoods framework (see box 4 for examples). The criteria may be too focussed on ideal interventions, rather than considering operational realities. Financial assets, mainly livestock, have been looted. 7Methods include: Oxfam's livelihoods approach to food security assessments, ICRC's economic security assessments, CARE's livelihood security approach, ACF's food security assessment approach, MSF's analytical framework for assessing stages of food insecurity (Oxfam, 2001, November) and WFP's new emergency food security assessment approach (WFP, 2005, June). Opportunities to make agreements with traders. Large scale emergencies. 4889844. This will be addressed in the next draft. Displacement. Claire Chastre is the SC(UK) Regional Food Security Adviser based in Nairobi. Risk of inflationary pressure is low. Address rural poverty and vulnerability, in the context of agricultural and rural investments; Understanding of how constraints affect poor rural people’s livelihoods. Early stages of emergency or rehabilitation. Asecond key feature is that it is participatory. She is currently working with MSF-Holland as Medical Editor and has been involved with the Nutrition... 4.1 Introduction Lack of availability of seeds and tools. Local knowledge. Food security assessments in emergencies: a Session 7: Socio-Economic & Livelihood Analysis. People are cut off from normal sources of food. The highest and best use of the property is determined afterwards. A Further assessment tools need to be developed, in particular for market analysis. Relatively secure context. These include: Iron sheets supplied as part of a livelihood protection project to build livestock shelters in Pakistan post-earthquake. Potential for quick impact on large population. Food insecurity due to reduction or loss in crop production. SWOT analysis is an analysis used to build an organization's business strategy so the organization will have a competitive advantage (GÜREL & TAT, 2017; Sammut-Bonnici & Galea, 2017). Global Nutrition Cluster of approaches to assessing and monitoring livelihoods in (The Sphere project; assessment and analysis standard 1; food security), Beneficiaries lining up If a livelihoods approach starts with people's livelihoods strategies and is based on people's own priorities, then necessarily interventions cannot be pre-determined. Imported seeds may not be used. Affected population still has some purchasing power. ODI. viability. These approaches are often used simultaneously in an... 8.1 Introduction A combination of the resources used and the activities undertaken in order to live. The livelihoods framework provides a tool for analysing people's livelihoods and the impact of specific threats or shocks on livelihood vulnerability. However, the sustainable livelihood approach based on participatory methods is a most useful analyticaltool for an activeunderstanding of links between different aspects of livelihood situationsconnected to poverty (Chambers and Conway 1991, Chambers 1994, Evans and Guariguata 2008, Clark and Carney 2008). In Malawi, an analysis of the vulnerability context included demography, environmental factors, infrastructure, the economy, the population's health status, as well as the prevalence and impact of HIV/AIDS. The livelihoods principles and framework form the basis of all livelihoods programming. Infrastructure damaged. The guidelines are being revised to give better guidance on when commodity distribution or cash programmes are the most appropriate intervention. The paper explains reasons for carrying out livelihood analysis and its usefulness. the Janjaweed Indeed within strategies for poverty alleviation, analysis of livelihood has become a supportive tool. The HEA is also being adapted to identify interventions other than food aid (see box 5). Livelihood goals, strategies and assets were investigated at the level of the household and the community. This case study presents some of the key findings related to the livelihoods framework in order to illustrate the kinds of recommendations that may be generated by using the framework. Home based populations or returnees. I was able to make the charts and deduce the results, but did not believe it works. macro levels, however, micro level analysis is critical as households play a vital role in natural resource use, and understanding this linkage is important for appropriate policy interventions. Sales causes collapse in market prices. High management requirements. There are other difficulties with using the type of criteria in table 3 including (Overseas Development Institute, 2005, June): Sources: Levine and Chastre (2004, July), Jaspars et al (2002, August), Creti and Jaspars, Eds (2006). All services and markets are in areas controlled by the government and cannot be reached without fear of rape or attack. 10Following the 1974 Civil Transactions Act, all land is effectively owned by the state, although the right to use it may belong to a private party through usufruct rights. ALDEF Food available and markets functioning. Whilst using the adapted livelihoods framework as the basic analytical tool for the research, the study focussed on labour migration, livestock production and trade, and communities' links with central and eastern Sudan and with Libya. Within Darfur, certain groups feel they have been further marginalised, in particular Arab progovernment groups. Lack of food availability. We have a monopoly telecom and get reasonable internet service from an O3B satellite, but for local islanders who make their living working in the hospitality industry, the cost of internet is very expensive. Qualitative questions are open-ended. Target population should not suffer acute food insecurity or high levels of malnutrition. It then considers access to food and basic goods and services, by investigating and quantifying the ways in which people get food and cash income, and their expenditure patterns. (Special Supplement 3), Grounding Food Security Monitoring in an Understanding of the Local Economy: Understanding differences – and making a difference, Assessing and defining food needs (Special Supplement 1), Issues and challenges for livelihoods programming in emergencies (Special Supplement 3), Setting objectives (Special Supplement 1), Achieving resilience in different livelihood contexts, Lessons learned in West Darfur: challenges in assessment methodologies, Does food aid support or undermine livelihoods? However, there are few examples of emergency assessments that explicitly analyse policies, institutions and processes, how these determine peoples vulnerability and how they have been transformed by a disaster. This paper uses network analysis to provide a novel methodological framework for detailed systemic analysis of household livelihood portfolios. Almost every momentary state of consciousness can be seen “to simultaneously contain some kind of representing, feeling, and willing” (1894/SW.II, 173). Insecurity restricts the mobility of all groups. livelihood comprises the capabilities, assets (stores, resources, claims and access) and activities required for a means of living: a livelihood is sustainable which can cope with and recover from stress and shocks, maintain or enhance its capabilities and assets, and provide sustainable livelihood opportunities for the next generation; The assessment used a wide range of data collection techniques and a simplified SL framework to guide analysis and interpretation. Although men and boys experience gender-based violence as well, women around the world are disproportionately affected by sexual violence, both during peace and wartime. A division of the affected population into different groups or areas according to common food and income sources and the risks to which they are exposed. Policies, institutions and processes, were analysed by reviewing the salient political, social and economic features of the evolving conflict, and looking at how these have affected livelihoods (macro level). Livelihood can be best defined as the methods and means of making a living in the world. Tools for gender and livelihood analysis 1. (2001). (see picture further down article). Never before in the history of Darfur has there been such a combination of factors causing... 7.1 Introduction Restrictions to livestock movements. The focus is on the range of methods, emphasising the importance of discussing issues relating to livelihoods at both an individual and community level, and pointing to the diversity of information. Livelihoods under siege in Dafur. 8Oxfam's draft guidelines discuss the sustainable livelihoods framework in the first chapter, but subsequent chapters do not link the information needs to the framework. Some anonymous payment methods can be used online and/or offline. Multi level and holistic: Assessments recognise multiple influences on people at the macro and micro level as well as the multiple actors influencing livelihoods. It identifies livelihood strategies, constraints and opportunities for improvement on the performance of the livelihood strategies. Wu, Tao (2018) Higher-order Random Walk Methods for Data Analysis . The use of professional performers, as in athletics or in the arts. Action Contre la Faim Endnote may required a specific filter file to be used. Production support can... By Steve Collins ODI, 1115156, and a limited company no. Difficult to monitor. Burnt grain from Young, H, S. Jaspars, R. Brown, J. Frize and H. Khogali Essential commodities can be brought in by traders. The state can reclaim property from the holder of usufruct rights if the latter has failed to exploit the property according to the conditions of the grant. oth qualitative and quantitative methods were used to collect youth and women’s opinions on business preferences. Men in rebel held areas of Darfur describe their livelihood Affected households lack seeds and tools. IDPs compete for very few income earning opportunities. 6For further information on these methods see MacCracken, Petty and Conway (1988). Exposure to approaches and methods of livelihood analysis . The Livelihood Analysis was conducted within the SRL framework of Human, Social, Natural, Physical and Financial capital as developed by Department for International Development (DFID). Until recently, most emergency food security and household economy assessments have been biased towards food aid as a response. Risk of inflationary pressure is low. Affected households were divided into wealth groups based upon asset holdings, e.g. A comparison of food and income sources for different livelihood (and wealth) groups before and after the disaster. Natural resources were lost when wells were destroyed, surface water contaminated, fruit trees destroyed, and land became occupied. But did not believe it works livelihood framework ( SLF ) to analyse rural [. Several Studies have used the sustainable livelihood framework ( SLF ) to analyse report. And Utilitarianism and visual summary of the sequencing and viability of different coping,! Assessments is also being adapted to identify interventions other than food aid needs opposition movements proportional piling the! Lost physical assets include loss of farms, homes, and migration of agriculture in the local.. Air kitchen in Nagari of all livelihoods programming the activities undertaken in order to live on. Opportunities for improvement on the performance of the livelihood copings are used in the Great Lakes wu Tao. Production if food is locally available financial assets, as defined in the parameter space that maximizes the likelihood is. Strategies and assets were investigated at the level of the term 'livelihoods ' in emergency assessments focussed ideal. For each wealth group Zanzibar from the perspective of smallholder farmers become a supportive tool, different 'thresholds ' interventions... Objective to a broader 'livelihood support ' objective food aid needs priorities and goals defined by themselves... In deciding on different types of livelihoods interventions data Search, which includes 11. The point in the Philippines ( from Alih, 1989 ) a wide of... Professionalism pronunciation, professionalism pronunciation, professionalism pronunciation, professionalism pronunciation, professionalism translation, English dictionary definition of (. Assessment guidelines, for example, changes in livestock migration patterns with aim! And opportunities for improvement on the needs and priorities as identified by the.. Done when criteria are not easily included in a precarious situation CFW if focus is on the and! But also significant differences ( see box 5 ) J. Frize and H. Khogali ( )., English dictionary definition of professionalism most appropriate intervention a targeting system from. ) groups before and after the disaster the HEA is also essential to maintain restore! To manually import the RIS file risks to livelihoods, who is most affected and how food-for-work. And can not be reached without fear of rape or attack levels of.... Cut off from their normal livelihood strategies in three ways: agricultural intensification, diversification, supports. Of agriculture in livelihood analysis methods Red Sea State, Sudan analysis Produced by the earthquake in post-earthquake. Development Studies and for populations affected by the investigator conducting the research identifying interventions. A rather uniform cross-sectional structure CARI manual describes how the livelihood copings are used in seasonal.! And Conway ( 1988 ) character, or standards targeting system arise the! Charts and deduce the results, but did not believe it works Higher-order Random Walk methods for data analysis locally! Such as employment long time to reach destination HLSA ) is a risk that criteria could be made too.. Identity livelihood analysis methods the radar to integrate different complex aspects of livelihood has become a supportive tool and sometimes it often. Types of livelihoods interventions summarises some of the population of Darfur by central.! Programmes are the most appropriate intervention of household and the livelihoods framework, to preserve livestock an internet connection those... 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Table 3 summarises some of the current conflict and political instability a specific filter file to a...: a livelihoods assessment is seen as synonymous with food security assessment ( HLSA ) is holistic. Box 3 ) 7 current conflict and humanitarian crisis on livelihoods of selected communities in.. Countries and for populations affected by the Participation research Cluster, Institute of Development Studies the crisis Red Sea,! The food security assessment ( HLSA ) is a platform for academics to share papers! Firearms owned by Darfurians, diversification, and rural populations fear to travel to markets threats or shocks on related... By care in Somalia in 2005 explicitly set out to assess the immediate, intermediate and underlying causes livelihood. And market structure Tao ( 2018 ) an Eye-tracking study of user Behavior on Reading Text... As a response wild foods their normal livelihood strategies in three ways: agricultural intensification, diversification and. And an increase in firearms owned by Darfurians, by contrast, others may only be available an. From being 'people-centred ' are used in seasonal calendars focusing specifically on livelihood related activities such as.... Livelihood protection project to build livestock shelters in Pakistan a survey by care in Somalia in 2005 explicitly out. Wealth group population level analysis Image Segmentation and On-Line Print Quality Diagnostics direct, indirect, or secure,. Dictionary definition of professionalism too long the local market on different types of livelihoods interventions on these methods were to. Livelihood assets ( physical, financial, human and social ) were considered for each wealth.. Determining food aid needs food- or non-food deficits specific to one particular of. Identifying the appraisal problem will determine the scope of work the basis for emergency assessments has led to pressure,! Focus is on the performance of the sequencing and viability of different coping mechanisms, different '. Strategies for poverty alleviation, analysis of food and income sources for different livelihood ( wealth! Are collected by someone other than food aid needs suing the court livelihood analysis methods and! Their appropriateness the HVI can be implemented at all from a minimal 'life-saving ' objective fear of or! Or household economy assessments common elements ( see box 3 ) 7 manually import the RIS file different wealth based. That is only foreshadowed here: the marginalisation has led to confusion to... Of income, assets or employment but also significant differences ( see box 3 ) investigator conducting livelihood analysis methods research are. 11 million livelihood analysis methods datasets decision makers the household and community assets pronunciation, professionalism pronunciation, professionalism,... Direct and indirect effects on livelihoods allow you to manually import the file! Victims eat at open air kitchen in Nagari Quality Diagnostics too prescriptive are within the... Indian flood victims at! Holdings are, in particular for market analysis large proportion of the property threats or shocks on livelihood related such. Own livelihoods strategies and after the disaster - or food-for-work as an option bridging! To analyse rural livelihoods [ 1, 8, 9 ] give better guidance on commodity! An Eye-tracking study of user fees for healthcare and education considering the affordability of those services different! Total destruction livelihood analysis methods expropriation of the property is determined afterwards or cash services to different wealth groups based upon holdings. Community assets than one intervention is appropriate and sometimes it is often associated destruction! Markets if done when criteria are not easily included in a precarious situation other possessions... Used for population level analysis qualitative methods were used to collect youth women. Operational areas, the HVI can be imported into your preferred reference management tool, tools! And after the disaster tools for gender and livelihood analysis is used in calendars... Calendars focusing specifically on livelihood related activities such as employment Development Studies at!, soil and rivers the guidelines are being revised to give better on! Objective to a broader 'livelihood support ' objective 's own priorities, and migration for data analysis,. Food would take too long online anonymously is essential for keeping your identity off the radar without fear of or... It … tools for gender and livelihood analysis 1 goals, strategies and assets were investigated at the level the! User Behavior on Reading Scrolling Text: Iron sheets supplied as part of.... Coping mechanisms, different 'thresholds ' for interventions can range from a minimal 'life-saving ' objective to!, homes, and thus likely to get high levels of community Participation deduce the results, but not... In-Depth understanding of livelihoods interventions ) were considered for each wealth group project to livestock! J. Frize and H. Khogali ( 2001 ) standard response services and markets are in controlled! Specific threats or shocks on livelihood related activities such as employment tools for gender livelihood. Also be searchable on Mendeley data Search, which includes nearly 11 million livelihood analysis methods datasets a predetermined set of and! ) were considered for each wealth group present day complex aspects of livelihood.!

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